Therapies for AD include topical, traditional systemic or biologic, and adjunctive treatments.

Intermittent topical corticosteroids are used to treat disease flares.

Topical nonsteroidal creams and tar treatments can alleviate itch. Oral steroids are not recommended as they can cause AD flares.

Antihistamines can be used for itching, and antibiotics can be used for infections.

Extensive or severe disease can be treated with oral or injectable medications such as:

  • monoclonal antibodies that target interleukins
  • calcineurin inhibitor (e.g. cyclosporine)
  • janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors

Monoclonal antibodies inhibit specific interleukins or interleukin receptors involved in AD inflammation. Small molecules (e.g. calcineurin and JAK inhibitors) limit downstream proinflammatory signals that contribute to AD.